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Viva voce

The term “viva voce” comes from Latin and means “with living voice.” In academic settings, particularly during graduate or doctoral examinations, a viva voce examination (often called a viva) is an oral examination where the candidate defends their thesis or dissertation before a panel of examiners. This format allows examiners to ask questions, seek clarification, and engage in discussion with the candidate to assess their understanding of the subject matter and the validity of their research. Viva voce examinations are commonly conducted in various countries, especially in European and Commonwealth countries, as a part of the assessment process for earning a research degree.

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